Archive for the ‘Flora and Fauna’ Category

YOU can protect more rainforest!

Dear Friends of the Rainforest:

There have been many exciting developments at the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve over the last year and a half, and the most recent is the opportunity to permanently protect 63 acres of rainforest – adding it to the 540 acres that we already care for.

To date, over 2000 hardwood, fruit, and medicinal-use trees have been planted in former pasture and agricultural areas and are growing rapidly. Hundreds more are ready to plant. The arboretum of fruit and timber trees is shooting upward, and the riverside support house (The Taj) is now 100% energy and water independent through the use of a filtered rainwater system and solar / battery electricity –- zero carbon footprint.

The Santa Cruz site has become a mecca for researchers and avid herpetologists, entomologists, birders and fish collectors, who confirm that the site is a biological hotspot. Recently, papers were published documenting the first Peruvian record of a species of frog (Pristimantis orphnolaemus) and caecilian (a legless amphibian) on the site, and there have been several sightings of birds that are normally absent or very rare in the region. We’ve also encountered naturally occurring Brazil nut trees, not previously known from the area.

Due to the proximity of the half-million inhabitant city of Iquitos, Peru, the remaining rainforest is being destroyed at an alarming rate. We have witnessed this as acres after acres are burned for slash-and-burn agriculture. In unprotected areas, there is high hunting pressure for bushmeat (monkeys, sloths, agoutis, and other sources of protein) as well as rampant and mostly illegal harvesting of valuable trees. In the past two years, three new sawmills have been built on the Mazan River alone, and rafts of dozens or hundreds of logs float by the reserve daily on their way to the sawmills.


Location of Santa Cruz Field Station Relative to Iquitos

It isn’t all doom and gloom though. Our reserve currently protects 540 acres, including very high quality rainforest, and our replanting of degraded areas is actively restoring rainforest.

For some time now, we’ve had our eye on an adjoining lot that would add to our river frontage on the Mazan River, and widen our forested corridor from the river to our protected lands further inland. Lot 53 is 63 acres in area, most of which is forested and about half is primary rainforest. Very recently the landowner decided to sell, backing off his plans to turn it into pasture. We put a deposit down to hold the property and the bill of sale was signed, notarized and registered on in August 2015. Now we are raising funds to complete the transaction. Including all costs, we are looking at $250 an acre for tropical rainforest! As of January 2016, over forty of the acres have been funded.


Lot 53 location. The already protected lands are bordered in white, and our two facilities (Taj River House and the inland JT Research Station) are noted. Real, tangible land – GPS coordinates shown from Google Earth.

We are offering friends and supporters of Project Amazonas the opportunity to save an acre of Amazon rainforest for $250. Here is a chance for you, your class, your club, your business, your colleagues and friends to make a real difference and preserve a genuine piece of the rainforest.   Want to honor someone? Want to give a unique Christmas gift to someone who has “everything”? This is the time!

With a “purchase” one or more acres of land, we’ll send a certificate of “ownership”, complete with the GPS coordinates of the acre of land that was purchased. If funds over and above the purchase price come in, the owner of the adjacent Lot 54 also wants to sell – Lot 54 is smaller (~20 acres).

This is real rainforest with GPS coordinates; you can even look at it via satellite thanks to GoogleEarth and you’ll always be welcome to visit in person. US donors will also receive a receipt for US tax-deduction purposes. Title of the land will reside with Asociación Civil Proyecto Amazonas (Project Amazonas’ Peruvian legal entity, but we’ll have a plaque on site recognizing those who made the acquisition of the additional acreage possible).

We hope that you’ll join us in expanding our protected lands at Santa Cruz, with the resulting protection of tens of thousands of species of plants and animals. The reserve is a valuable resource right now, but it will soon be priceless.

Thank you for your support!

Devon Graham (President and Scientific Director, Project Amazonas)

Don Dean (Board member, Project Amazonas)

How to finance your acre(s) of rainforest

Option 1 – send check for $250 (or multiples thereof) made out to Project Amazonas with Santa Cruz land purchase in the subject line to:

Treasurer, Project Amazonas, 701 E Commercial Blvd, #200, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334

Option 2 – send a wire transfer for $250 (or multiples thereof) to our bank account – please send us an email letting us know as well so we can properly credit the transfer.

Name of Account: Project Amazonas, Inc.

Bank Address: Bank of America, 4901 N. Federal Highway, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33308

Account #: 3604081289, Routing #: 063100277, SWIFT: BOFAUS3N

Option 3 – Send $250 (or multiples thereof) via PayPal to – add a note to specify that the funds are for Santa Cruz land purchase.

A few recent photos of fauna and flora

In the scale of the vast Amazon basin, the area of the reserve at Santa Cruz is a virtual pinhead. Yet, due to the encroaching development and pressures from the poaching of bushmeat and illegal logging, it has become a safe haven, a veritable hot spot of biodiversity. In January 2015, a rare frog, previously seen only in primary forest in Ecuador was found for the first time in Perú on the Santa Cruz site. Discovered by Marisa Ai Ishimatsu, on previously developed land, and fetched by our multi-talented Emerson Torres, the difficult work of identifying and verifying the species, Pristimantis orphnolaemus, was the result of world-class herpetologists including Dick Bartlett and Kenny Wray. Kenny and his family are spending ten months on the site, as he continues post-doctoral research.

Pristimantis orphnolaemus, first sighting in the country of Perú.

Pristimantis orphnolaemus, first sighting in the country of Perú

Here are some more photos taken by volunteers in the last couple of months.  Wherever possible, the reptiles and amphibians have be ID’d by world-class guru of herpetology, Dick Bartlett.


Rather large larvae of an unidentified ground beetle


One of the many phases of the velvety swamp snake, Liophis typhlus, They can be orange, gray, tan, olive-gree, leaf green, or other hues.


Bufo margaritifer, crested forest toad, immature


Bufo margaritifer, crested forest toad


Young Imantodes cenchoa, blunt-headed tree snake


Dipsas sp., possibly the rarely seen Dipsas pavonina, a snail eating snake.


Plica plica, common tree runner


Anolis (probably nitens (forest anole) but possbily bombiceps (blue-lipped anole))


Beautifully camouflaged beetle on heliconia flower.


Leaf mimic soaking up minerals from drop of sweat.


Giant monkey frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor. These things can get really big.


Land planarian


Scorpions are among the most successful species on Earth. Here, the smaller they are, the more they hurt.


Skink eggs?

PATMoths PATPl01 PATSpider PATSpiderEggs

Malicious Biomimicry and The Great Kapok Tree

Specious Science in the Amazon

The story is true.  The pictures are real.  The rest is iffy.

The Amazon: it’s a jungle out there, every living thing struggling for a niche.  That’s why they call it the jungle.  Impersonation is a rainforest survival technique and the types of foolery have been well documented, except for one.  It is with the simplest evidence and humblest mind (or vice versa) that I hereby extend the model and offer a new type of imitation: malicious mimicry ©.  Imagine a species that deliberately resembles another with the express desire to inflict emotional damage.

Camouflage is the simplest mimesis: blend in or at least look like nothing palatable, as these two leafhoppers illustrate.  Then it gets more complicated:

In 1878, Fritz Müller described species that possessed similar deterrents (say being poisonous, sticky, smelly or socially deviant) come up with a common appearance for the sake of efficiency.  It’s a whole lot easier to teach predators one signal than to confuse them with multiple duds.  One can easily imagine focus groups of poison dart frogs designing their logo.

A little earlier and in the same part of the world, Henry Walter Bates described how some innocuous critters could scam the system by posing as others who had actually gone through the evolutionary pain of acquiring noxious qualities.

The case for malicious mimicry © starts with the beautifully written and illustrated children’s book by Lynne Cherry, The Great Kapok Tree.  It’s a recast of the 1837 Woodman, Spare that Tree, with the protagonists played by the forest animals whispering subliminal messages into the axman’s ear.

Kapok, scientifically, Ceiba pentandra, is a large tree native to tropical America and parts of Africa.  The Mayans believed that the great tree stood at the center of the Earth.  It can grow to an enormous size and is home to dozens of animals and hundreds of plants.  The fiber is used from everything from filling stuffed toys to wrapping blowgun darts for hunting.

The plan went this way: take the passion for rainforest preservation and reforestation to the children.  Hook up with the classrooms that read this great book and tap the youngsters’ enthusiasm.  I’d supply the sapling and a needy place in the Amazon to plant it, and for the cost of getting it into the ground, make up a nice picture suitable for framing.

Seed Pods and Downy Cotton

The first challenge is that the tree produces seeds only sporadically – after a drought, it drops its leaves and puts out nocturnal flowers pollinated by bats.

Kapok Sprouts

In August 2011, I stumbled upon the mother lode of kapok seed pods.  I cleaned them, stuffed handfuls of fiber into a travel pillow, (prepared a story for the mattress police at customs just in case), then set out to see if I could get the things to grow.  The pea-sized, black seeds immediately responded to surrogate soil (wet paper towels) and within a week they were ready to transplant to plastic bags.  I left them in good hands and went back to the States to start a new school year.

Upon returning four months later on holiday break, I was horrified to find that nosy neighbors had caused the plants to go into hiding – booted off one property and obscured from view on another.  Seems that to the casual observer, the young plants resemble a rather recreational weed, so to speak.

Clearly, there is no purpose in this similarity except to cause me emotional damage and derail the project.  Malicious mimicry ©   –  like twins dressing up in the same outfit looking for mischief.  You heard it here first.

These are not weeds. This is not weed.


So, now I’m left with good intentions and a hundred wonderful kapok children.  Nonetheless, they will find a home and be a home in the rainforest.  Please check back again in ninety years.

Don Dean, March 2012

Pictures taken in Loreto Perú.

Draft Heliconia Survey – Call for Comments

In February 2012, a team of two Americans and three local assistants visited Project Amazonas’ Santa Cruz field site to work on the fruit diversity project and to perform various exploratory and maintenance tasks.  The site is on the Mazan River, forty minutes upriver by powered canoe from the port of Mazan and about two hours from Iquitos, Perú.  During the trip, Minnesotan volunteer Jake Schultz did a brief survey of Heliconia along two paths that trace old property lines on the site, running from the river to the main station.  More specimens remain to be found and identified on the many trails.

The purpose of this preliminary blog is to document some of the species and varieties of Heliconia of known provenance in the Upper Amazon and to invite more knowledgeable devotees to improve the scholarship by identifying the varieties.  The photos are in two parts: the first group are in situ in both old growth forest and secondary growth forest.  The second group of photos are of plants acquired from a local collector (who provided the names) and were planted on the site around the buildings or on a new nature trail on former agricultural land to keep them separate from the natural forest.

Comments and advice are welcome – please help identify the varieties!  This post will be expanded and updated after comments.

Part I: Prominent Native Heliconia on Two Trails

Many thanks to Jake for the photos.  Jake is trained in sustainable farming techniques, and in addition to documenting some of the Heliconia, he shared his culinary and medical skills during the trip.

H. 986

Heliconia 644

Heliconia 643

Heliconia 638

Heliconia 631

Heliconia 628

Heliconia 626

Heliconia 606

Heliconia 601

Heliconia 595

Heliconia 594

Heliconia 592

Heliconia 565 - planted at upper field station


Part II:  Plants Introduced February 2012


Heliconia bihai “Lobster Claw II

Heliconia psittacorum "Opal Cream"


Heliconia psittacorum "Sassy"


Heliconia psittacorum "Strawberry and Cream"


Heliconia psittacorum "Guyana Red"


Heliconia bihai x H. stricta


Heliconia psittacorum "Fire Opal"


Heliconia stricta "Tagami"


Heliconia psittocorum "Golden Adrian"


Most common H. planted in the city proper. Takes full sun. Planted in front of the Taj.


Alpinia purpurata "Pink"


Alpinia "Kimi Red"


Zinziber spectabile "Maracas"


Etlingera Venusta "Red"

End of post – will be revised after comments.

28. February 2012

Don Dean, Project Amazonas

An Introduction to Common Fruits in the Upper Amazon

The fruit diversity project is managed by Project Amazonas, Inc., a Peruvian-American non-profit organization that focuses on humanitarian, educational, research and conservation work in the Peruvian Amazon.  The goal of this initiative is to cultivate a nursery of the widest possible variety of Amazon tropical fruits in a single location, as well as to return forests to their natural balance by reintroducing native trees in areas that have been degraded by logging and slash and burn farming.  The site is near the village of Santa Cruz on the Mazan River, just upstream from its junction with the Napo River.


Teachers and college students can assist in the project and get a hands-on introduction to the Amazon to bring home and to their classroom while earning undergraduate or graduate credit: Hands-on Amazon for Educators.  Volunteers are also invited.

Unlike papaya, coconut and other commonly-known tropical fruits, most local fruits in the Amazon basin don’t have the shelf life, durability, consistent supply, or the financial viability to attain worldwide distribution and are relegated to local enjoyment.   Only a handful of the most common fruits are mentioned in this article; dozens more can be found in the surrounding rainforest.

Why the variety of tropical fruits?  The intense competition of tropical ecosystems, as well as poor soil, variable rains and often months-long inundation have driven plants to creative measures of survival and propagation.   Among the adaptations necessary for the survival of the species is a method of seed dispersal, giving rise to an enormous variety of edible fruits.  A seed with an appetizer that will be picked up by a fish or mammal without destroying its viability is advantageous to its survival.  As an example, the cashew has a fleshy, appealing “apple”, while the nut is protected against predation with inflammatory and cyanogenic compounds; it succeeds due to this clever combination of pleasure and poison.  The nut must be processed to remove the toxic chemicals before it makes it to the store shelf.   It follows that this symbiotic relationship with animals has engendered fruits high in nutrients beneficial to the animals that disperse them, especially proteins, oils, carbohydrates, vitamins, and other phytochemicals yet to be appreciated.

Local fruits are dietary staples on homesteads, as well as ubiquitous in the form of juice drinks and ice cream in Iquitos.  In their raw form, many tropical fruits are high in both sugar and citric acid, making them at once sweet and bitter.   Cane sugar (also grown locally) is usually added in their preparations; especially needy are starfruit, cocona, camu camu, arazá and a few others.

Ice creams at the Giornato heladería on the Plaza de Armas, Iquitos

Some of the most common fruits are described briefly below.  Several of them have been imported and widely distributed throughout the tropics but most are of Amazon origin.  Since local names vary, often referring to more than one fruit, or to different fruits in different areas of the Amazon basin, scientific names are included.

AGUAJE (Mauritia flexuosa) – The deep red, lumpy, egg-shaped fruit is the most common of all the fruits in Iquitos, found on almost every street corner. Yellow-orange when peeled, tasty, but there’s very little to eat (big seed and little meat). The large palm that provides it is impressive.  To get the taste of the fruit, stick with the ice cream or buy them fresh, as the fruit available on the street suffers a questionable sanitary standard.

ANONA (Rollinia mucosa) A strange looking thing with green-yellow knobs.  When it’s ripe (soft to the touch), it’s best to cut it in half and use a spoon to scoop it out – taste of vanilla custard.  An overlooked gem, not to be confused with noni!)  It’s a random find, sometimes available at roadside stands on the highway.

Fruit-laden aguaje palm and ripe anona

ARAZÁ (Eugenia stipitata), also known as guayaba brasilera.  Yellow, highly variable from golf ball- to softball-sized.  Soft skin and texture of a ripe peach, a good fruit to munch on, and extremely versatile, useful from marmalade to wine, and of course, juice.  A bit acidic.  The native Peruvian version (guayaba) produces smaller fruits and is more susceptible to insect predation, but can be made into an excellent marmalade.

CAMU CAMU  (Myrciaria dubia) has the highest  concentration of Vitamin C of any known fruit in the world.   There is also significant and promising research indicating that the phytochemicals in the fruit are effective in treating a variety of medical maladies.

LUCUMA (Pouteria spp.) – an incredibly unique taste!  It’s dense and sticky, not something eaten by itself, but it’s so unusual that it can be found in many forms including chocolate-covered drops.


Left: arazá and camu camu.  Right: lucuma

MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis) – a mid-sized yellow passion fruit, teardrop shaped, common in the Belen market.  Very similar to GRANADILLA (Passiflora ligularis), another passion fruit.  The myriad seeds are covered with a sweet gel that doesn’t make for the easiest eating fruit, but a common fruit juice in season and a frequent beverage in local eateries.

UVILLA (Pourouma cecropiaefolia) Amazon grapes, similar to purple grapes but with a much larger seed.  Frequently found in smaller markets in season.


Left: Granadilla. Right: uvilla.

TUMBO (Passiflora quadrangularis) – a giant passion fruit, frequently trained on a home garden trellis.  Taste similar to cantaloupe.


Tumbo in the market and on home trellis.

CARAMBOLA / star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) – one of those sweet and sour fruits that needs a little sugar.  Widely cultivated, it’s an import, probably from the East Indies.

COCONA (Solanum sessiliflorum)– a native tomato.  In the wild, they’re often covered with coarse fuzz.  They can be eaten raw but the skin is thick.  It’s sweetened to make a drink commonly served in local restaurants.


Left: carombola on the tree; Right: cocona on the bush

CACAO (Theobroma cacao) Like copoasú, the pulp around the seed is consumed and the seed is discarded except in commercial operations for making chocolate.  Fruit grows directly from the trunk, not unusual in tropical fruits

COPOASÚ (Theobroma grandiflorum) The soft pulp around the seeds is the tasty part, redolent of rum.  The hull is nearly as thick and tough as a coconut.


Left: copoasú in its tortoise shell; Right: cacao ripening on the tree

MACAMBO (Theobroma bicolor) – resembles a green football brain.  More likely to see the grilled tasty seeds than the actual fruit.

NONI (Morinda citrofolia) nicknamed cheesefruit for good reason.  It’s respected by the locals for medicinal uses, and can be eaten as a survival food.  There’s a type of Danish cheese that has a similar malodorous property – I’m told it’s good if you can just get it past the lips, but you can’t wash the smell off your fingers.


Left: macambo with its ant sentinels; Center: grilled macambo seeds; Right: noni (cheese fruit)

MARAÑON / CASHEW (Anacardium occidentale).  Grouped with cacao here because many people don’t know that the best part – the cashew nut, is discarded.  The “apple” part is eaten, similar to mamey, but the nut is protected by two layers of deterrent; don’t eat it raw unless you want to get poison-ivy like blisters,  – the seeds have to be commercially processed to be edible.

TAPERIBA (Spondias dulcis)  Common in drinks, ice cream, even pastries.  Eaten raw when in season, the somewhat tenuous flesh sticks to a stringy pit, but it has much more meat than aguaje.

Left: cashew apple and nuts.  Right: taperiba

GUAYÁBANA (Annona muricata) Easy to identify by its deep green color and spiny skin, it is dense, solid, yet amorphous.

SINAMILLO (Oenocarpus mapora) and UNGURAHUI (Oenocarpus bataua) with clusters of small hanging fruits, these are more typical of palm fruit than is the familiar coconut. Sinamillo is mashed into a cocoa-colored drink.  Ungurahui fruit is extremely nutritious, high in good-quality protein and oil.

Left: guayábana.  Center: child plucking sinamillo.  Right: sapote vendor.

SAPOTE (Matisia cordata).  Attractive olive skin, and rich peach-orange color inside, taste of a great melon but more meaty.

HUITO (Genipa americana), the size of a large fist, gets sickeningly sweetly pungent when ripe.  These are well represented in the medicinal plants row in the Belen market, and the young fruit produces an indelible ink and body paint.

PIFUAYO (Bactris gasipaes) Clusters of egg-sized fruit can be green, yellow, or orange, from a tall, spiny palm tree.  They can be eaten raw, but are more commonly boiled, peeled and salted.

GUABA (Inga edulis) Sometimes called ice cream bean, it is not related to the vanilla bean.  The long pods are twisted to reveal a dozen or so nuts wrapped in a moist, cottony, pleasant tasting snack.

Huito, pifuayo and guava.

SACHA MANGO (Grias peruviana) Generally, “sacha” can be translated as “wild”, “pseudo”, or the like.  It is not at all related to mango.  It has a huge seed, and the edible part around it has the color, texture and taste of carrot.



CAIMITO (Chrysophyllum caimito ) the trees produce a huge crop seasonally and can be found most of the year.  Quite tasty, but the skin releases latex when broken, making for sticky lips unless it’s peeled first.

Boy with caimito

Some fruit trees have been heavily planted in and around Iquitos primarily for their ornamental value.   Mamey, breadfruit, huasai (and some other palms) are the most common.  Pictures will follow in a later post.

BREADFRUIT  /  Pan del arbol (Artocarpus altilis)  The seeds are boiled with a peanut-like flavor, and the pulp is high in starch.  An import, the fruit was brought to attention by the fascinating story of the voyage of the Bounty.  Breadfruit trees are a common sight along the banks of riverine settlements.

HUASAÍ (Euterpe spp.), A sister of the Brazilian acai berry, which enjoyed a brief explosion in popularity in the States as a weight loss scheme.  The tree has a slim, elegant look and are a favorite municipal planting, notably along the Nauta highway and at the airport.

MAMEY / poma rosa (Syzygium malaccense Merr&Perry) with dark green foliation, the tree is easily trimmed to a nice shape, and drops a fruit closely resembling an apple both in taste and appearance, except for its large pit.  The texture is softer, too, more like a ripe pear.  The apple is eaten raw and doesn’t make its way into drinks or ice cream. There are several of these trees on the Plaza de Armas in Iquitos, in bloom in August with magenta flowers.

CIDRA – this is a common, inexpensive fruit, a green-colored orange wanna-be.  Stringy and as bitter as lemon.  Because of the variability of local citrus, these can appear similar to sweeter oranges.  They are shown in the first picture in this blog, posing as limes.

COCO / CACAO / COCA – for the casual tourist, it’s important to differentiate amongst the similar-sounding things.  They are not at all related.  COCO is coconut, a nice treat when you’re thirsty at fruit stands on the highway chilled, opened with a machete and served with a straw.

CACAO is mentioned above, the fruit that produces the seeds that are processed into chocolate.

COCA is the leaf that can be processed to produce cocaine.  The dried leaves are boiled for tea (mate de coca) as a general stimulant and to combat altitude sickness (soroche).

BANANA – very briefly, there are several types that can be called plátano. Plátano maduro is very firm, served grilled or sliced and deep fried.  Sweeter and softer bananas are eaten raw or sliced lengthwise and gently pan fried.

Don Dean

Last update: December 2012.  Credits:  All photos taken on site in Iquitos, Mazan or Santa Cruz, Loreto, Perú.

You may link freely to this site, but all photos and text are copyrighted by the author.  I am keenly interested in developing the fruit diversity project with more fruits, as well as adding good quality native woods and palms.  Comments and questions are very welcome:

2012 – Year of the Reptile


At Home in Loreto, Perú